Refrigeration is the process of removal of heat in a space, substance, or system to lower and/or maintain its temperature below the ambient one (while the removed heat is rejected at a higher temperature). In other words, refrigeration means artificial (human-made) cooling. Energy in the form of heat is removed from a low-temperature reservoir and transferred to a high-temperature reservoir. The work of energy transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units.
Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle, agriculture, and settlement patterns. The idea of preserving food dates back to at least the ancient Roman and Chinese empires. However, mechanical refrigeration technology has rapidly evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars. The introduction of refrigerated rail cars contributed to the westward expansion of the United States, allowing settlement in areas that were not on main transport channels such as rivers, harbors, or valley trails. Settlements were also developing in infertile parts of the country, filled with newly discovered natural resources
A container fitted with two refrigeration units and a single diesel generator
Valuable, temperature-sensitive, or hazardous cargo often require the utmost in system reliability. This type of reliability can only be achieved through the installation of a redundant refrigeration system.
A redundant refrigeration system consists of integrated primary and back-up refrigeration units. If the primary unit malfunctions, the secondary unit automatically starts. To provide reliable power to the refrigeration units, these containers are often fitted with one or more diesel generator sets.
Containers fitted with these systems may be required for transporting certain dangerous goods in order to comply with the International Maritime Organization’s regulations.
A refrigerated container or reefer is an intermodal container (shipping container) used in intermodal freight transport that is refrigerated for the transportation of temperature-sensitive cargo.
While a reefer will have an integral refrigeration unit, they rely on external power, from electrical power points (“reefer points”) at a land-based site, a container ship or on the quay. When being transported over the road on a trailer or over rail wagon, they can be powered from diesel-powered generators (“gen sets”) that attach to the container whilst on road journeys. Refrigerated containers are capable of controlling temperature ranging from -65 °C up to 40 °C. Some reefers are equipped with a water cooling system, which can be used if the reefer is stored below deck on a vessel without adequate ventilation to remove the heat generated. Water cooling systems are more expensive than air current ventilation to remove heat from cargo holds, and the use of water cooling systems is declining. Air cooling and water cooling are usually combined. Air cooling removes the heat generated by the reefers while water cooling helps to minimize the heat produced by the reefers. The reefers are using some heat exchangers that behave as water-cooled condensers: water cooling.
Reefer containers carry cargo of perishable nature. Hence they require proper operation and maintenance throughout transportation. It is essential that Marine Engineers and Electrical Officers are well trained for same with adequate knowledge and skill to operate, maintain and troubleshoot the systems. These courses improve the same by lectures, group discussions, hands on training, simulation exercises, and logical troubleshooting with a refrigerated container and associated means.
Mr. Tony Pires
1. Worked with Orient Box Movers PVT. LTD at MBPT as a reefer technician for 8 years.
2. Worked with OBM as a senior reefer technician at porbunder for 3 years.
3. Worked with OBM in the port(JNPT) as reefer in-charge for 12 years.
4. Worked with OBM reefer manager as overall in-charge at port as well as in the yard for 5 years.
5. Completed course (training) of carrier/ Thermoking/ daikin/ Starcool.
6. Given Technical training to vessel staff.
Mr. Sunil Mulik
1. Worked with power and control for 5 years. Experience of under slung generator supply and manufacturing(providing services to APL line) at MBPT.
2. Worked with orient box means at JNPT for 7 years as a reefer manager, and was looking after reefer repairing and monitoring as well as reefer cycle.
3. Owning a company since 2003 namely Sai Shipping Services and the activity is transportation of reefer goods.
4. Having contract of import/export monitoring at MSWC CFS Dronagiri.